About Perfume 
Tuesday, April 16, 2013, 06:58 PM
Perfume is a substance that gives off a pleasing fragrance. Perfumes are made of natural or synthetic (artificially created) materials, or a combination of both. People who make perfumes are called perfumers. People use perfumes in many ways to create a pleasant odor. They apply paste and liquid perfumes to their bodies and clothing. They use lipsticks, face and body lotions and powders, and other cosmetics that contain perfume. By far the largest amount of perfume is used in soaps, especially bar soaps. Industrial odorants (low-priced, scented substances) are added to some products to hide unpleasant odors and make the products attractive to buyers. Paper, plastic, and rubber products are often treated with odorants. Since ancient times, plants and plant products with pleasing odors have been burned as incense during religious services.

All liquids used for body scenting, including colognes and toilet waters, are sometimes considered to be perfumes. But true perfumes, called extracts or essences, contain a greater amount of perfume oils and are more expensive than colognes and toilet waters. Most perfumes consist of 10 to 20 per cent perfume oils dissolved in alcohol. Colognes contain 3 to 5 per cent perfume oils dissolved in 80 to 90 per cent alcohol, with water making up the balance. Toilet waters have about 2 per cent of perfume oils in 60 to 80 per cent alcohol, and the balance consists of water.

How Perfumes are Made

The composition of a perfume depends largely on its intended use. Most expensive body perfumes contain rare flower oils from many parts of the world. Perfumes used in soapmaking come from lowcost materials. Industrial odorants also consist mainly of low-cost fragrances. Many perfumes are blends of flower and plant oils, animal substances, synthetics, alcohol, and water.

Plant substances. Fragrant plants have tiny sacs (baglike parts) that make and store the substances that give them their pleasant odor. These substances are called essential oils. Essential oils taken from flower petals are used in the most delicate and expensive perfumes. Essential oils are also found in other parts of plants. They may come from the bark, buds, leaves, rinds, roots, wood, or from whole plants. Plants whose oils are used extensively in perfumes include the cinnamon, citronella, geranium, jasmine, lavender, patchouli, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, and tuberose.

Much essential oil is extracted (obtained) from plants by steam distillation. The first step in this process is to pass steam through the plant material. The essential oil turns to gas, which is then passed through tubing and cooled to make it liquid again. Essential oil is obtained from some flowers by boiling the petals in water, rather than by passing steam through them.

Solvent extraction is an important way of obtaining essential oils from flowers. The petals are dissolved in a solvent (liquid that can dissolve other substances). The solvent is distilled from the solution, leaving a waxy material that contains the oil. This material is placed in ethyl alcohol. The essential oil dissolves in the alcohol and rises with it to the top of the wax. Heat is applied, and the alcohol evaporates, leaving a highly concentrated form of perfume oil.

Enfleurage is another method of extracting flower oils. Glass plates are covered with fat, and flower petals are spread over the fat. The fat absorbs the oil from the petals, forming a greasy pomade. The pomade is treated with alcohol to dissolve out the oil. Animal substances slow the evaporation of perfume oils, and make the fragrances long-lasting. For this reason, they are often called fixatives. Perfume ingredients from animals include castor, from the beaver; civet musk, a fatty substance from the civet; musk, from the male musk deer; and ambergris, a waxy substance from the sperm whale.

Synthetic substances account for the largest amount of materials used in the perfume industry. The raw materials for these substances may be obtained from natural sources, petrochemicals, or coal tar. Some synthetic materials have the same chemical makeup as naturally occurring materials.

Others are different from any material found in nature. Many synthetic odors have been developed throughout the world to meet the increasing demand for perfumes and to add to the creative development of the perfume industry.

History

Ancient peoples burned fragrant resins, gums, and woods as incense at their religious ceremonies. The word perfume comes from the Latin words per, meaning through, and fumus, meaning smoke. Perfumes have been found in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs (rulers) who lived more than 3,000 years ago. The Egyptians soaked fragrant woods and resins in water and oil, and then rubbed their bodies with the liquid. They also embalmed (preserved) their dead with these liquids. The ancient Greeks and Romans learned about perfumes from the Egyptians.

For hundreds of years, perfume making was chiefly an Oriental art. In the early 1200s, the crusaders brought perfume from Palestine to England and France. By the 1500s, perfumes had become popular throughout Europe. Synthetic chemicals have been used extensively in perfumes since the late 1800s. Today, the perfume industry is a billion-dollar-a-year business in the United States.

Comments

danye48 
Friday, September 27, 2019, 01:01 AM
nike air max 97
goyard wallet
yeezy boost
yeezy
yeezy boost
skechers boots
fila sneakers
goyard wallet
moncler coat
balenciaga bags
pandora jewelry
pandora
air max 97
yeezy boost
jordan 11
giuseppe shoes
kate spade bags
pandora
pandora jewelry official site
adidas originals nmd
philipp plein
longchamp handbags
off white
red bottoms
fila mens shoes
jordan retro
air max 270
yeezy 350
yeezy shoes
skechers
yeezy
birkenstock sale
nike air vapormax flyknit
celine handbags
golden goose sneakers
yeezy
nike air max 270
nike air max
louboutin
fitflops clearance
lebron
adidas shoes
burberry scarf
lebron 14
yeezy shoes
red bottoms
nike air max 2018
adidas flux
longchamp
salomon boots
adidas yeezy
womens north face jacket
jordan 13
louboutin shoes
Nike Air vapormax
air max 270
pandora
red bottom shoes
nike vapormax
nike air max
jordan shoes
nike shoes
ed hardy shirt
air max
moncler jacket mens
adidas boost
kate spade outlet
vans
moncler coat
polo ralph lauren
chaussure salomon
salvatore
kate spade handbags
yeezy trainers
pandora canada
adidas originals ultra boost
lebron 15
ferragamo shoes men
yeezy shoes
salomon shoes
moncler
moncler sale
air max 95
nike air max 2018
bracelet pandora
louboutin heels
skechers
bijoux pandora
jordan
fjallraven kanken
louboutin
longchamp handbags
christian louboutin uk
jordan retro
red bottom shoes
nike vapormax
balenciaga sneakers
curry
moncler jacket mens
mizuno
adidas shoes
kate spade bags
golden goose shoes
kate spade
adidas
adidas nmd r1
adidas ultra uncaged
burberry handbags
nike air max 90
kd 10
Chaussure Adidas
golden goose outlet
coach outlet
kd 10
yeezy boost 350
jordan 11
jordan 11 space jam
nike vapormax
moncler coat
bague pandora
giuseppe
ugg canada
salomon boots
salomon speedcross 4
moncler jacket
christian louboutin
Hermes Belts
goyard
fitflop boots
fjallraven kanken
nike air max 97
philipp plein outlet
ugg boots
cartier jewelry
moncler jacket mens
jordan shoes
new jordans
pandora jewelry
fitflop sale
yeezy boost 350 v2
pandora charms
pandora bracelet
skechers shoes
adidas shoes
nike outlet
ecco shoes
salomon
pandora jewelry official site
mizuno shoes
salomon boots
adidas
birkenstock sale
off white clothing
goyard
pandora rings
Adidas Yeezy
north face
goyard wallet
adidas boost
air max
new lebrons
nike air max 270
nike air max
balenciaga shoes
james harden shoes
kate spade purses
pandora charms

ronald 
Thursday, August 8, 2019, 10:19 AM
Black And White Nikes For Girls
New Human Race Nmd
Pandora Shoe Charm
Air Max 95 Sneakerboot Olive
Pandora Ridge Hill
Adidas Samba Sale
Falcon Adidas
Nike Jordan Men
Adidas Velour Mens
Adidas Tech Super
Nike Boots On Sale
Adidas Gazelle Mens Sale
Nike Zoom Clear Out
Blue Ugg Boots Womens
Adidas Tempo 9
Yeezy 750 Grey
Baby Birkenstocks
Adidas Zx 700
Nike Md Runner 2 Womens
Nike Pegasus Pink
Pandora Travel Charms
Asics Nimbus 19
Nmd Beige
Pure Boost 2019
Nike Air Max 2019 Sneakers
Nike 97S Sale
Special Field Air Force 1 2019
Nike Mens Vapormax
Nike 720 Shoes
Trump Supreme
Supreme New York Shirt
Nike Air Max 90 Ultra 2.0 Womens
Air Flight Huarache 2019
Pandora Home
Nike Free 5.0 Womens
Www Pandora Net
Adidas Originals Mens Zx 700
Blue Roshes
Adidas Fur Slides
Supreme Outlet
Yeezy Official
Vapormax Cheap
Butter Yeezy
Adidas Support Shoes
Adidas Footy Boots 2019
Adidas Quesence
Off White Jordans For Sale
Nike Indoor Shoes
Adidas Hoops
Nike Sb
Adidas 2019 Basketball Shoes
Nike Discount Store
Asics Gel Lyte Iii Grey
Nike Air Force One High
Size 14 Nike Trainers
Nike Cost
Adidas Goodyear Sneakers
Nike Air Max 97 Black And White
Adidas Zx Trainers
Nike Epic Lunar Flyknit 2
When Are The Next Yeezys Coming Out
Nike Air Jordan 10
Nike Presto Womens Olive
Nike Air Force 1 Flax Wheat
Pandora Paw Print Charm
Air Force One Shoes
Nike Flex 2018 Rn
Off White Yeezy Black
Ladies Uggs
Air Force Pt
Nike Air Max White 2019
Pale Pink Adidas Shoes
New Nikes
Pink Balenciaga Sneakers
Pandora Friendship Charm
Womens Huaraches Black
Asics Womens Gel
Jordan Legacy 312
Nike Sb Youth Shoes
Ralph Lauren Plus Size Dresses
Nike Air Max 1 Og 2019
Nmd Pharrell Williams 2019
Grey And Orange Yeezys
Suede Birkenstocks
Nike Air Max More Running
All Black Flyknit Vapormax
Adidas Mens Outdoor Shoes
Ultra Boost Upcoming Releases 2019
Adidas Supercloud Slides
Nike Tennis Shoes Women
Adidas Nmd Womens Cheap
Ebay Uggs
Sf Af1S
Stan Smith Shoes Black
Ralph Lauren White Dress
Adidas Superstar Shoes Womens
When Is Air Max Day 2019
New Balenciaga Sneakers
Cheap Yeezy Boost 350 V2
Nike Flex Supreme Tr 3 Womens
Adidas Collab Shoes
Pandora Boy And Girl Charms
Nike Air Jordan First Class
Navy Nike Trainers Womens
Adidas Wool Shoes
All Adidas
Kobe Shoes
Adidas Shoe Store Near Me
Grey Nmd Womens
Nike Huarache 2K Filth
Nmd Solar Red
Black And White Air Force Ones
Pandora Dog
Nike Air Zero
Nike Experience Rn 6
Balenciaga Motorcycle Bag
Lebron 7 Shoes
Mens Nike Lunarsolo
Green Nike Shoes Mens
Nike Womens High Top Basketball Shoes
Air Force Blue
Nike Air Max 2019 Waterproof
Toddler Boy Adidas Shoes
Nike Air Force One Release Dates 2019
Adidas Nmd Size 7
Nike Vapormax Womens Blue
Purple Ralph Lauren Polo Shirt
Nike Air Jordan Retro
White Vapormax Flyknit
Air Max 2019 White Blue
Vapormax Platinum
Angel Wings Ring Pandora
Adidas Shoes For Kids Boys
Nike Tns Khaki
Nike Pegasus Sale
Air Max 90 Blue And Black
World Of Pandora Disney
All Star Af1
Nike Flightposite
Nike Seattle
Yeezy 500 Raffle
Mens Nike Zoom All Out Low 2 Running Shoes
Adidas Official Website
Nmd Black
Burgundy Air Force 1
Adidas Beckenbauer
Nike Air Max Tn Ultra
Duck Camo Nmd
Nike Revolution 4 Kids
Nike Black Friday 2019

leigh 
Sunday, May 19, 2019, 01:34 AM
Adidas Canada
Fitflops Clearance
Champion Clothing
Pandora
Christian Louboutin
Converse Trainers
Fila Sneakers
Nike Shoes
Fjallraven Kanken Backpack
Birkenstock Shoes
Fitflop Boots
Karen Millen
Mont Blanc
Longchamp Tote
Air Max 90
MCM
Balenciaga Sneakers
Fitflop
Coach Outlet
Supreme T Shirt
Nike Shoes
Birkenstock Shoes
Asics Shoes
Balenciaga Shoes
Pandora Rings
Adidas Shoes For Men
Pandora Charms
Balenciaga
Golden Goose Sale
Five Finger Shoes
Champion Hoodie
Kate Spade Handbags
Yeezy Supply
Bape Hoodie
Fjallraven Bags
Louboutin
Longchamp Backpack
Michael Kors Handbags
Air Jordan
Nike Lebron
Louboutin
Pandora Bracelet
Giuseppe Zanotti
North Face Outlet
Mulberry Handbags
Pandora Rings
Pandora Bracelet
A Bathing Ape
Pandora Bracelet
Birkenstock Sandals
Vans
Bape
Goyard Handbags
Giuseppe Zanotti Sale
Fila Canada
Coach Wallet
Louboutin
Puma
Fjallraven Kanken Backpack
Adidas Yeezy Boost 350
Louboutin Shoes
Off White T Shirt
Lebron Shoes
Coach Handbags
Supreme Hoodie
Harden Vol 2
Ralph Lauren Dresses
KD 10
Ecco Golf Shoes
Suicoke Shoes
Adidas Boost
Golden Goose
Kate Spade Bags
Kyrie 5 Shoes
Adidas Originals Ultra Boost
Bottega
Nike Air Max
Converse All Star
Golden Goose Superstar Sneakers
Champion Sweater
Kate Spade Bags
Fjallraven Bags
Adidas Outlet
Adidas Stan Smith
Bape Sweatshirt
Balenciagas
Asics Running Shoes
Kevin Durant Shoes
Nike Air Max 97
Jimmy Choo
New Jordans
Yeezy Boost
Fila Sneakers
Yezzys
Off White Shoes
New Jordans
Salomon Running Shoes
Birkenstock
Longchamp Bags
Michael Kors Bags
Nike Air Max
Goyard Bags
Pandora Jewelry
Birkenstock
Cartier Bracelet
Giuseppe Shoes
Swarovski Necklace
New Balance Shoes
Bape Hoodie
Salvatore Ferragamo
Ferragamo Shoes
Karen Millen
Vans Slip On
Salomon Speedcross 4
Ralph Lauren Outlet
Coach
Nike Air More Uptempo
Christian Louboutin
Aike Air Max
Vibram Five Fingers
Golden Goose Superstar
Polo Ralph Lauren Canada
Hydro Flask Stickers
Fred Perry Polo
Vans Shoes
Nike Air Max 270
Skechers Shoes
Supreme Canada
Birkenstock Sandals
Ralph Lauren USA
Hydro Flask 40 OZ
Curry 5
Converse
Salomon Xa Pro 3d
Clarks UK
Supreme Clothing
Mizuno Shoes
Jordan Canada
Calvin Klein UK
Jimmy Choo
Nike Air Max
Champion Sweatshirt
Off White T Shirt
Fjallraven UK
Fjallraven Backpack
Pandora Bracelet
Skechers Boots
Karen Millen UK
Bvlgari Sunglasses
Birkenstock Sandals
Balenciaga
Red Bottom Shoes
Supreme Shoes
Asics Kayano
Vans Shoes
NMD
ED Hardy Clothing
Toms Boots
Red Bottom Shoes
Kyrie Irving Shoes
Coach Outlet Canada
Currys
Fjallraven Kanken
Nike Air Max 2019
Burberry UK

wuyan37 
Wednesday, May 15, 2019, 03:11 PM
new jordans
philipp plein outlet
nike shoes
ultra boost uncaged
kate spade bags
golden goose shoes
nike air max
nmd
salomon shoes
adidas superstar
pandora
nike air max
off white shoes
yeezy boost
ugg slippers
skechers shoes
ultra boost uncaged
moncler jacket
skechers boots
adidas canada
curry
basketball shoes
yeezy shoes
kate spade bags
uggs for women
louboutin
balenciaga
bijoux pandora
basket skechers
kate spade
nike shoes
moncler doudoune
jordan retro 11
nike air max 90
pandora rings
giuseppe zanotti sneakers
jordan 11
kd 11
pandora
adidas yeezy
pandora rings
salomon speedcross 4
golden goose shoes
moncler
giuseppe zanotti sneakers
ugg slippers
louboutin trainers
yeezy 750
goyard
balenciaga bag
goyard wallet
adidas yeezy
adidas shoes
adidas originals eqt
air max 2019
salomon
yeezy trainers
red bottoms
fila mens shoes
yeezy
birkenstock sale
moncler homme
fjallraven kanken
philipp plein outlet
yeezy
pandora bracelet
air jordan
mizuno running shoes
pandora jewelry
mizuno
pandora
adidas nmd
nike off white
nike air max 90
goyard bag
yeezy boost
jordan 11
yeezy shoes
adidas yeezy
red bottom shoes
ugg bottes
pandora
moncler
goyard bag
bijoux pandora
fila sneakers
louboutin heels
bottes ugg
salomon speedcross 4
red bottoms
skechers
jordan 11
yeezy
jordan shoes
vans shoes
adidas trainers
chaussure louboutin
pandora charm
louboutin
jordan retro
longchamp handbags
kevin durant shoes
air max 95
adidas stan smith
curry 5
balenciaga shoes
ugg uk
off white sneakers
adidas superstar
skechers
longchamp bag
yeezy
nike off white
air max 90
kate spade
mizuno wave rider
jordan 11
louboutin
yeezy 750
yeezy 350
pandora
skechers sandals
moncler femme
pandora jewelry
bottes ugg
adidas superstar
pandora bracelet
balenciaga shoes
louboutin
kevin durant
jordan 11
philipp plein
goyard wallet
skechers boots
longchamp
ugg
salomon boots

minerva 

edwina 

karmit 

seo plugin 
Friday, May 29, 2015, 05:21 AM
Hello Web Admin, I noticed that your On-Page SEO is is missing a few factors, for one you do not use all three H tags in your post, also I notice that you are not using bold or italics properly in your SEO optimization. On-Page SEO means more now than ever since the new Google update: Panda. No longer are backlinks and simply pinging or sending out a RSS feed the key to getting Google PageRank or Alexa Rankings, You now NEED On-Page SEO. So what is good On-Page SEO?First your keyword must appear in the title.Then it must appear in the URL.You have to optimize your keyword and make sure that it has a nice keyword density of 3-5% in your article with relevant LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing). Then you should spread all H1,H2,H3 tags in your article.Your Keyword should appear in your first paragraph and in the last sentence of the page. You should have relevant usage of Bold and italics of your keyword.There should be one internal link to a page on your blog and you should have one image with an alt tag that has your keyword....wait there's even more Now what if i told you there was a simple Wordpress plugin that does all the On-Page SEO, and automatically for you? That's right AUTOMATICALLY, just watch this 4minute video for more information at. <a href="http://www.SEORankingLinks.com">Seo Plugin</a>

Add Comment
Fill out the form below to add your own comments.









Insert Special: